Compte rendu par Iphigeneia Leventi, University of Thessaly
Nombre de mots : 2342 mots
Publié en ligne le 2008-10-28
Citation: Histara les comptes rendus (ISSN 2100-0700).
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This volume comprises the acts of an international conference which was held at Athens in 1998 under the auspices of the Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of the Cyclades and the École Française d’Athènes, with the participation of many scholars specialized in Archaic sculpture from the Cyclades. Such a conference and its proceedings, which unfortunately appeared with a 10 years delay only, are a valuable contribution to the study of a region whose sculptural production in the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. and beyond, played a significant role in the development of the monumental marble Greek sculpture and the emergence of its Early Classical phase, as the editors acknowledge in the preface (which may justify the inclusion of the Severe Style material in the volume as well). The communications published in the volume, in French, English, German, Italian and Greek, shed new light on this long procedure and raise new critical questions that advance the scholarly debate around major issues: the priority or not of Crete in the process of transmitting Near Eastern and Egyptian inheritance, and the birth of Greek monumental sculpture, as well as the competition between major centres of production on Naxos and Paros, which flourished not only because of the rich and excellent marble quarries but also as a result of their strong political organization. These island city-states which strived for their domination both in Panhellenic sanctuaries such as Delos and Delphi and among other regions in Greece and the Mediterranean, left their stamp on the early phases of sculptural production at Samos and Athens, both through the exportation of their marble and the circulation of their artists. These developments were discussed in the light of new material excavated especially on Paros and earlier forgotten finds that were now brought forth. A broader selection of types is presented such as animals and Parian reliefs, but architectural sculpture is conspicuously lacking. The volume has a brief but elucidating conclusion by such a connoisseur of the Greek sculpture as the late Claude Rolley to whose memory it is dedicated. It is accompanied by abstracts of the communications in French, English and Greek. Indeed it was a good idea of the editors to include at the end of the volume figures of sculptures to which most of the contributors refer, but the spectacular new Gorgo in the Paros Museum could have also been illustrated there. Literature and finds later that the 1998 conference have unfortunately not been incorporated in the articles (as exemplified below), some of which are presentations of finds and other lengthy treatises on special issues, all arranged in thematic sections, though they sometimes overlap.
Elena Walter-Karydi discusses the well-known bronze relief sheets from the Heraion on Samos, Argos, Delphi and Olympia, assigning them to Parian workshops due to stylistic, compositional and iconographical comparisons with Parian marble reliefs and painted pottery. Photeini N. Zapheiropoulou presents the recent conspicuous finds excavated outside the walls of the ancient city of Paros, the most important being a new type, the Gorgo statue landing with opened wings on a ridge tile, possibly an akroterion from an unknown temple of ca. 580 B.C.; she also refers to the fragmentary early Classical grave relief of a kore, confirming the Parian origin of a number of early 5th-century marble reliefs in various museums. Bernard Holtzmann sheds light on an earlier find from Thasos, a worn kouros head, whose stylistic assessment brings to the recognition of both Parian and Chian features thus introducing the discussion on works reflecting the impact of more than one regional workshops. The article by Yannos Kourayos gives a contextualized overview of the recent finds in ancient Paros, one of the most productive workshops of Archaic and Early Classical sculpture.
Kenneth A. Sheedy presents the kouros British Museum B 325 excavated in a rock-cut tomb at Marion on Cyprus where it was found mutilated and leaning against the door of the chamber. The Marion kouros is indeed the only marble kouros known to come from a Cypriote grave, while stable isotopic analysis of its marble and stylistic assessment proves it to be Parian. The author studies the peculiar burial custom with which this kouros was associated trying to establish a connection to similar Cypriot and North Greece grave practices and the impact of New Eastern and Egyptian contexts. Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer revisits the forgotten Berlin torso of a Naxian kouros. Francis Prost offers a long article on the workshop relations of three early Naxian kouroi from Delos, the most famous being the kouros torso A 4085+ A 4293. Though they differ slightly in size and graphical rendering of the surface they are persuasively proved to be contemporary creations from the same Naxian workshop working in situ in the first half of the 6th century B.C. and using the same metrological system. This new perspective challenges the traditional method of dating or assigning to regional workshops Archaic sculptures according to their surface treatment.
Ismene Triante publishes a fragmentary Late Archaic horse recently found in Paros in comparison with an earlier-known one, suggesting the possibility that they both come from a chariot group. Georgia Kokkorou Alevras discusses the two horsemen on Delos whose recent isotopic marble analysis proves them to be of Parian origin. She reaffirms this attribution in opposing their stylistic and iconographical traits to those of the Attic workshop, whose individuality she reinstates (in contrast to aforementioned articles in the same volume) also reassuring their early date (560-550 B.C.). Thus, for the first time we attest the presence of the horseman in the sculptural repertoire of Cyclades, hitherto thought as an exclusively Attic subject. And last, but not least she comments on Naxian influence evident on these Parian sculptures and recurs to the theme of the interrelations in Aegean sculptural Archaic worshops (cf. above Holtzmann, d’Onofrio). Philippe Jockey makes a case for a second Naxian sphinx dedicated in Delphi in the 6th century B.C. based on the fragment of a plinth with the hind legs of a leonine animal or monster.
Y. Kourayos et F. Prost: La sculpture des Cyclades à l’époque archaïque (p. 15-18)
Paros et son rayonnement
E. Walter-Karydi: Bronze pariens et imagerie cycladique du haute archaïsme (p. 21-54)
Φ. Ν. Ζαφειροπούλου: Η παριανή γλυπτική και οι πρωτοπόροι δημιουργοί της (p. 55-71)
B. Holtzmann, Une nouvelle tête archaïque de Thasos (p. 73-86)
Γ. Κουράγιος: Η ανασκαφική δραστηριότητα στην Πάρο και το χρονικό της ανακάλυψης των νέων γλυπτών (p. 87-129)
La Crète et les Cyclades
M. d’Acunto: La fonction de la plus ancienne sculpture naxienne à Délos et la comparaison avec les productions crétoises dédaliques: sur les débus de la sculpture monumentale en Grèce (p. 133-182)
A. Hermary: Kouroi à ceinture, de la Crète aux Cyclades (p. 183-197).
Athènes et Cyclades
A. M. d’Onofrio: L’apporto cicladico nella più antica plastica monumentale in Attica (p. 201-262)
J. Marcadé: À propos des sculptures archaïques de l’ἀγορὰ θεῶν de Délos (p. 263-281)
Le type de la koré
K. Karakasi: Die kore «Athen-Lyon» und die kore «Phrasikleia» (p. 286-310)
F. Croissant: Les premiers korés cycladiques (p. 311-331)
Le type de kouros
K.A. Sheedy: The Marion kouros in the British Museum (p. 335-365)
W.-D. Heilmeyer: Der kuros von Naxos in Berlin. Geschichte, Zustand, Fragen (p. 367-379)
F. Prost: Un atelier de kouroi naxiens (p. 381-399)
Animaux et monstres
Ι. Τριάντη: Υστεροαρχαϊκό άλογο από την Πάρο (p. 403-415)
G. Kokkorou-Alewras: Les cavaliers archaïques de Délos (p. 417-435)
Ph. Jockey: Delphes inv. 25584, 25585, 25586: à propos de quelques fragments inédits d’une nouvelle sphinge archaïque colossale (p. 437-466)
D. Berranger-Auserve: Le relief archaïque parien, thèmes, types, évolution (p. 469-479)
Α.Π. Ματθαίου: Το ανάγλυφο της Ικαρίας Ι (p. 481-483)
Φ. N. Ζαφειροπούλου: Το ανάγλυφο της Ικαρίας IΙ (p. 485-489)
K.A. Sheedy and S. Pike: The Delos Colossus Project (p. 493-509)
Le style severe
D. Braunstein, J.-L. Martinez et A. Pasquier: à propos d’une nouvelle présentation du torse « Cordier » Ma 862 du musée du Louvre (p. 513-533)
Éditeurs : Lorenz E. Baumer, Université de Genève ; Pascal Griener, Université de Neuchâtel ; François Queyrel, École pratique des Hautes Études, Paris ; Roland Recht, Collège de France, Paris